How to Etch a 2-Layer Copper Printed Circuit Board Using the UV Etching Method?

Tuesday, January 27, 2015 Posted by
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The basic concept of the UV etching method in creating a printed circuit board is to use ultraviolet light to soften and eliminate a substrate and use the retained substrate to shield the copper board from an acid bath.

In creating a two-layer copper circuit board, you need the following materials: copper (coated with positive UV resist substrate), Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to dissolve the substrate coating, UV lamp, UV translucent plastic to weight down the PC during exposure, transparency sheets, and a small drill bit (.031).

printed circuit boardIn designing the printed circuit board, it is crucial to take note that vias is quite difficult to deal with, so it will be to your advantage if you try to minimize the use of it to your layout. Once you are done with the layout, you need to set up the PCB software so that it will only print the things you want in the copper board.

In preparing your board, you need to mark the parts where you will be cutting using a pair of calipers that are quite handy in etching precision marks in the protective sheet. Then, you need to cut the printed circuit board to its appropriate size. You can use tinsnips but a dremel tool will work fine.

It is crucial to mirror the top layer because you need the actual PCB to be as close as the diagram as possible. The diagram should be clear when showing which side goes towards the printed circuit board because it will have a matte finish.

Many technicians are a bit scared of creating 2-layer printed circuit boards because these are quite difficult to line up the two layers. However, this is not actually that hard particularly if the board is small. All you need to do is to use a drill press to align the reference holes. Remember that the farther they are apart from each other, the easier it is to avoid misalignments in the rotation.

The next phase is regarded as a time-consuming step. First, you need to be extra careful in removing the protective sheet of one side of the board. It is recommended to do this at night or at least in a room because sunlight is a good source of UV light, and it can result to undesirable effects.

Then, align the artwork sheet with the circuit board and use a scotch tape to secure it. Place it under a transparent sheet and under a UV light for at least 15 minutes. If you wait a bit less, there will surely be substrate on the board. If you wait a bit more, you might end up washing off all the substrate during the acid bath.

Developing the printed circuit board is regarded as the coolest part of the whole process. You need to prepare a solution first to develop the PCB. You can use a clog remover mixed with water. However, there is always the possibility of overdoing it using a developer concentration. You can have the developer wash away all the etch-resistant substrate because of high concentration. Hence, be always sure to take note of the concentration that you are using so you can make the necessary adjustments.

Wear a pair of rubber gloves and immerse the circuit board in the developer and rub it with a foam sponge. Be very careful in this process because some clog remover solutions can melt away certain types of foams. Meanwhile, be sure to follow the etching process, which may take at least three to five hours.

After etching the circuit board, the next thing to do is to drill all the holes. As mentioned above, it is best to use a 0.31” drill bit alongside a tabletop drill press. This part is quite easy as the small copper vias can guide your drill into the holes.

Printed circuit board offer exotic substrates such as Aluminum Core PCB’s, Nelco, Arlon, and many others.

Common Prices for Lanyards and Its Accessories

Friday, January 16, 2015 Posted by

It is pretty common to see people wearing lanyards these days. Whether worn by students or company employees, this product is very popular due to its functionality and customizability. If you are planning to get one, here is a rundown of prices for various types of lanyards:

Flat Braided (Non-Breakaway)

LanyardsThis type of lanyard comes in a simple one color design that is stitched or embroidered together. This product costs around $60 for 100 pieces. Again, it doesn’t have a particular logo attached to it and only comes in one color of your preference. There are around 11 available colors for this product including maroon, green, black, red, yellow, orange, forest green, navy blue, teal, white and purple. This is around 3/8 in width and around 36 inches long. Buyers can choose from swivel hook, no-twist hook, trigger hook, or swivel hook as an attachment.

Flat Pre-Printed (Smooth and Breakaway)

This product comes with a price tag of around $250 per 100 pieces. This is ideal for the workplace and in schools because it comes with a pre-printed design saying “Visitor”, “Contractor” or “Staff”. It features a swivel hook and a breakaway attachment that can snap off quickly when pulled by wearer.

Custom Embroidered (Breakaway)

This product is customizable and buyers can add their original logo or text. This feature can turn a basic ID lace into an accessory. The logo will be embroidered into the product and buyers can choose from a variety of attachments including swivel hook, bulldog clip, and split ring. It also has a breakaway design that is a great security for small kids to avoid any choking hazard. Given the many features included in this product, it comes with a price tag of around $1500 for every 100 pieces.

Round Braided (Non-Breakaway)

This is the most cost effective sample of the many types of lanyards available today because it is made of a material that resembles that of shoelaces. It is available in one solid color and is only around 1/8 inches in width. It comes with a price tag of around $45 for every 100 pieces.

Anti-Microbial (Breakaway)

This is ideal for students and people in industries that require cleanliness. Around 5/8 inches in width, this is made of an anti-microbial material that is not present in common lanyards. If you think about it, this type of products is placed around a part of the body that is usually very sweaty. Using this type of product will ensure that your skin will always be in good health. Given that, this product comes with an MSRP of around $135.

Typical Materials Used in Lanyards

Polyester

This type of material offers both great performance and affordable price. They are very comfortable to wear and can feature great logo quality at a minimum cost. Depending on the company, a product made of this material can cost under $1 even when fully customized.

Tubular

This is crafted from polyester that is tube-stitched. It is similar to that of a shoelace only better because it can be printed with a customized logo. When fully customized, a product made of this material can cost only around $0.50.

Nylon

This material ensures that the product will have a quality shine and construction that can be very durable even with the passing of time. This is a high quality material that provides a silkscreen finish to the end product. When bought in a bulk of around 5000 pieces, each piece can only cost around $0.69.

Cord Style

This is the newest style available in the market that offers a comfortable and classic look. It only comes with one color tone that can be printed with text message types of writings. If bought in 10,000-piece batches, each piece can only cost around $0.64.

Going At The Marketing World Alone – Disregarding Hiring Long Island SEO Companies

Monday, January 12, 2015 Posted by
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Millions of websites are published every day and some of them will get left out of the indexing of search engines. The reason why they will be completely left out is simple, they won’t adhere to the professional advice of hiring one of the many Long Island SEO companies. Whether you are setting up a personal page or something that is in relationship to business, you’re going to end up seeing a huge jump in your overall reach if you hire a professional grade solution. Let’s assume that you ignored that, what exactly would happen? Well, that’s a matter of conjecture for most, but there are a few things that have been evidenced by other sites that may manifest for you, which is something worth denoting moving forward. The following are just a few things that could go wrong when you decide to not hire any company to help build your overall reach.

The Search Engine Problem (penalties)

The first thing that you will encounter, and something that is not going to be obvious at first glance is simple, you will end up seeing your site get bounced right out of search engine results. You may not think that this is necessarily true, but it’s an absolute that you’re going to have to deal with on a regular basis. Search engine problems of this type are the result of penalties. Penalties are given to domains from search engines that are shifting their algorithms and indexing rules. The key to remember all of this is simple, algorithmic shifts will cause your marketing implementations to drop your site. That means no indexing, no traffic, and abysmal results over the time you’re working on building your site’s marketing.

Even if you were to find a way to circumvent the initial penalties, you’re going to find that there are other issues at play that you cannot really hide from. Focusing on the pieces that are going to help you gain leverage means that you will need to know what works and what doesn’t. The thing is, you will not know the algorithms that search engines are using, as they don’t publish them. That may seem unfair, but it’s the reality that many people are dealing with right now. Without hiring one of the better Long Island SEO companies, you are going to find that your search engine issues may become insurmountable in a lot of ways.

Traffic Issues

Long Island SEO companiesAnother thing that you may find to be true is that your traffic may spike and then drop out of the blue. One day your site may get tens of thousands of hits, and the next day there may be no hits. The cyclical nature of traffic online is more evident than ever with sites that aren’t using professional marketing help. The reason why this happens is because there’s no implementation of marketing collateral that will ping search engines, so they don’t index faster. Not only that, there are other trade secrets that every company is going to be utilizing to ensure that when you update your page, you get some sort of attention overall. It may seem like an impossible thing, but it’s something that has been proven time and time again to be true, especially in modern marketing circles.

Traffic has to be unique, targeted, and organic to fulfill the needs of sustaining a small business website. Even blogs need targeted elements because if they aren’t given traffic that is going to help push them in the right arena, things will go awry fast. You don’t want to end up with hits that are unsubstantial to building your overall site’s popularity. Imagine getting empty hits, just numbers, and your bounce rate reaches a boiling point of 90% or higher, and you can see what happens in regards to traffic when you go at it alone.

Missing Out On Changes

If you’re not constantly pushing to figure out what marketing elements are new, and what are no longer going to help you, you’re going to end up missing out on something important. Missing out on the changes that internet marketing pushes through is important to understand. You will want to keep up on all of this and ensure that what you’re doing is actually going to help you build on the leverage necessary to build an audience. If you aren’t keen on following the inside track of marketing, then perhaps it is time to hand over the reins to Long Island SEO companies that can help you navigate this issue with relative ease.

You may be thinking that you’re the exception of the rule. Many webmasters think that they have the one true solution to getting noticed online, and that’s a good thing. Confidence is always grand, but the truth of the matter is far simpler than you may realize. The truth is that most people don’t know what they are doing, and that professionals will trump the results that can come in marginally. If you aren’t working within the parameters of what Long Island SEO companies are doing, you are missing out on marketing elements that can bring you unlimited traffic and conversions. You could always test the waters, but it’s not recommended.